A – D

A – D



– A non-binding agreement signed by the 10 foreign ministers of ASEAN countries and China on 4 November 2002 in Phnom Penh with pledges to resolve their sovereignty disputes in a peaceful manner, without resorting to the use of force and through direct negotiations among the countries concerned.

Asian maritime & trade chronology to 1700 CE. Maritime Asia, 2004. 
– A work-in-progress list of historical accounts and archaeological excavations of maritime expeditions in Asia. “Not all of this information is reliable – but a few decades ago, perhaps very little of the early history would have been believed by the cynical and Euro-centric, and archaeological discoveries since then have so often validated or exceeded legend that we are not inclined to be too dismissive. There is an extraordinary volume of documentary evidence in Asian and Middle Eastern languages not directly accessible to us. Also, the combination of snippets of varying quality, and from different cultures, may sometimes build up to an overall impression more convincing than the individual parts.”

– A non-binding agreement signed by the 10 foreign ministers of ASEAN countries and China on 4 November 2002 in Phnom Penh with pledges to resolve their sovereignty disputes in a peaceful manner, without resorting to the use of force and through direct negotiations among the countries concerned.


Banlaoi, Rommel C. Maritime Terrorism in Southeast Asia: The Abu Sayyaf Threat. Naval War College Review; Vol.58, No.4, 2005.
– Reviews the history of the Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG) and explores the dangers posed by the possibility of terrorist groups using pirate methods to carry out attacks.

Barnes, Paul, and Richard Oloruntoba. Assurance of security in maritime supply chains: Conceptual issues of vulnerability and crisis management. Journal of International Management; 11, 2005 pg. 519-540.
– “The inherent complexities of maritime supply chains can produce significant vulnerabilities. This paper analyses those vulnerabilities and concludes by emphasizing the need to examine the goodness-of-fit of security initiative against business efficiency and competitiveness.”

Bateman, Coast Guards – New Forces for Regional Order and Security
– “While regional navies are concentrating on war-fighting capabilities, coast guards are being created or expanded to protect offshore areas and resources….By establishing a coast guard, a country is building an institution to provide for human, resource, and environmental security at sea. In contrast, navies are optimized for war-fighting and conventional security. Regional navies are focused on “high-tech” weapons and sensors and reluctant to be too heavily involved in tasks that are really those of coast guards. Employing high-technology warships and maritime aircraft on these tasks is overkill and a misemployment of highly trained military personnel. They are better left to a separate coast guard, specially equipped and trained for maritime policing.”

Bateman, Sam, International Solutions to Problems of Maritime Security – Think Globally, Act Regionally! (2004) 139 Maritime Studies 9.
Discusses international solutions to problems of maritime security, including the role of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), bilateral responses and multilateral efforts. “It is not hard to come up with good ideas on what needs to be done at a global level but it is much harder making these ideas work at a regional and national level.”

Beckman, Robert C. Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery Against Ships in Southeast Asia: The Way Forward. Ocean Development and International Law, 2002.
– Analyzes recently reported incidents of piracy and armed robbery against ships in Southeast Asia and recommends steps to be taken by international community and states in the region.

Beckman, Robert C., Joint Development in the South China Sea, Time for ASEAN and China to Promote Co-operation?  RSIS Commentary No. 46, 29 May, 2007 .
– “The most viable option is to shelve the sovereignty claims and develop a management regime based on cooperation in order to deal with impending problems and issues such as the increasing need for offshore gas and oil resources, the potential collapse of fisheries resources in the region, and the need to cooperate for cooperative measures to protect the marine environment and create good order at sea.”

Benton, Lauren. Legal Spaces of Empire: Piracy and the Origins of Ocean Regionalism.
– Examines the link between globalizing legal practices in the late 17th and early 18th centuries and sharpening distinctions between the Atlantic and Indian oceans-

“The Biodiversity of the South China Sea, ” The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, Supplement No. 8, 31st March 2000. Ex Anambas
– The state of marine biodiversity in the South China Sea (by Peter K. L. Ng and K. S. Tan and South China Sea island disputes (by Hasjim Djalal) and fourteen baseline biodiversity surveys and checklists on vascular plants, vegetation, sponges, crustaceans, hermit crabs, stomatopods echinoderm fauna, mollusks, gastropods, nudibranchs, cephalopods, and fishes of the South China Sea.

A Biophysical Assessment of the Philippine Territory of the Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion. Sulu-Sulawesi Marine Ecoregion Program, May 2003.– Extensive information on biological diversity in the region adjacent to the South China Sea. It identifies threats, current conservation initiatives and gaps in conservation efforts. It also targets priority areas for conservation projects within Philippine territory of the ecoregion. Available from Reefbase with (free) registration.

Bradford, John F. Japanese Anti-Piracy Initiatives in Southeast Asia: Policy Formulation and the Coastal State Responses. Contemporary Southeast Asia; Vol.26, No.3, Dec. 2004.
– Despite a traditional reluctance to take an aggressive stance in Asian affairs, Japan has accepted leading role in the efforts to eradicate maritime piracy. Some countries have offered their cooperation in the effort while others see the costs outweighing the benefits.

Bradford, John. The Growing Prospects For Maritime Security Cooperation In Southeast Asia. Naval War College Review, Summer 2005, Vol. 58, No. 3 .
– “Discusses the threats to maritime security in Southeast Asia, describes the factors tending toward strengthened maritime security cooperation, and argues that networks of bilateral relationships may be more fruitful than purely multilateral arrangements.” Keywords: ASEAN, military, threats, crime.

Brown, Roxanna M. and Sten Sjostrand. Malaysia at The Crossroads. Maritime Asia, 2001.
– The Malay peninsula separates two primary networks of sailing routes. To the west lies the Indian Ocean, with routes extending from the western coast of the Malay peninsula to the shores of Africa, and to the east lies the South China Sea, with a network of routes connecting East and Southeast Asia.

Bulkeley, Jennifer C. Regional Cooperation on Maritime Piracy: A Prelude to Greater Multilateralism in Asia? Journal of Public and International Affairs; Vol.14, Spring 2003.
– Examines maritime piracy as a possible uniting issue for future multilateral action in Asia by looking at potential challenges and providing policy recommendations for the future.

Buszynski, Leszek, and Iskandar Sazlan. Maritime Claims and Energy Cooperation in the South China Sea. Contemporary Southeast Asia; Vol. 29, No.1, 2007, pg.143-171.
Focuses on the issues caused by conflicting maritime claims in the South China Sea and the distribution of resources in the region. Keywords: maritime claims, energy cooperation, oil, hydrocarbons.


Chia Lin Sien, Marine Carriage of Petroleum with Special Reference to Northeast Asia, University of California, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, February 1998.
– Useful historical data on patterns of oil trade and shipping in Northeast Asia.

China’s Maritime Silk Road
A brief report by Zheng Wang & Andrew Ludwig in the February 04, 2015 issue of China – US Focus. It discusses the offshore oil-drilling platform HYSY-981 as a precursor of China’s new strategic initiative ‘the Maritime Silk Road,’ an ambitious proposal aimed at enhancing maritime partnership and geopolitical ties with China’s Southeast and South Asian neighbors.

Chua Thia-Eng, and Stella Regina Bernad, Eds. Coastal and Ocean Governance of the Seas of East Asia: Towards an Era of New Regional Cooperation and Partnerships, July 2003.
A pioneering PEMSEA effort to describe the geographical linkages of the five large marine ecosystems of East Asia (Yellow Sea, East China Sea, South China Sea, Sulu-Sulawesi Sea and Indonesian Seas). It calls on the coastal nations (D.P.R. Korea, Republic of Korea, Japan, P.R. China, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, and Vietnam) to create an institutional mechanism for coordinated action for sustainable ocean and coastal development, including financial implementation of local, national and regional action plans.

Cossa, Ralph. Security Implications of Conflict in the South China Sea: Exploring Potential Triggers of Conflict. PacNet Newsletter #16. April 17, 1998.
– Prescient analysis of potential triggers include exploration or exploitation activity, creeping occupation, armed displacement, armed enforcement, accidents or miscalculations, and other acts of provocation. Conflict scenarios are examined and recommendations are given to reduce the prospect of conflict. Possible confidence building measures are identified.

Cotton, James. ASEAN and the Southeast Asian ‘Haze’: Challenging the Prevailing Modes of Regional Engagement.
– Southeast Asia’s serious ‘haze’ crisis of 1997–98 was a result of forestry and land practices in Indonesia not conforming to state regulations regarding controls on the use of fire for land clearance. ASEAN devoted much time and attention to the issue, but regional cooperation measures were ineffective. Indonesia’s patrimonial political economy was the root cause, and the mobilisation of NGOs proved the only effective check on the problem, an expedient that has large implications for the future of ASEAN modalities. Canberra: Australian National University, RSPAS, Department of International Relations Working Paper No.1999/3 (1999)



Dillon, Dana. Maritime Piracy: Defining the Problem. SAIS Review; Vol.25, No.1, Winter-Spring 2005.
– The current definition of piracy is outdated and doesn’t sufficiently describe the problem. This article explores the bounds of the current definition as well as suggesting possible alternatives.

Dire Straits, Military Technology, March 2005
– Anonymous US navy view that regional states and interested extra-regional powers should pressure Jakarta to combat maritime crime and should also offer practical assistance, especially to its “over-burdened and outstretched” Marine Police.

Djalal, Hasjim. Draft guidelines for military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZ and their means and manner of implementation and enforcement. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2 , March 2005, Pages 175-183.
– Discusses issues involved in intelligence-gathering activities in Exclusive Economic Zones and provides suggestions for the settling of disputes between concerned states. Specific voluntary guidelines are proposed for military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZ. Views on these guidelines range from strong reservations regarding any restrictions to support for some restrictions. “The challenge is to find a practical way of handling these issues.” Part of a special Marine Policy issue on “Military and Intelligence Gathering Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone: Consensus and Disagreement.”

Djalal, Hasjim and Townsend-Gualt, Ian. Preventive Diplomacy: Managing Potential Conflicts in the South China Sea. (Chapter published in Herding Cats: Multiparty Mediation in a Complex World, Crocker, Hampson, and Aall editors, United States Institute of Peace Press. 1999).
– Comprehensive analysis of “workshop process” utilized by ASEAN diplomats. Keywords: working groups, dispute resolution, confidence building.

Duda, Alfred M. Contributing to Ocean Security: Global Environment Facility Support for Integrated Management of Land-Sea Interactions. Journal of International Affairs, 2005.
– Examines the connection between environmental policies in regards to coastal areas and poverty reduction goals.