E – J


Economy, Elizabeth. China’s Rise in Southeast Asia: Implications for the United States.
– “During the past few decades, China’s economic success has permitted it to pursue a greater role on the international stage.” Noting that China remains a distant third to the U.S. and Japan in trade and investment in East and Southeast Asia, Economy highlights China’s rapid advance, above all in the realms of economics and finance, but also extending to a broad realms including governance, the resolution of territorial conflicts, the environment and others, with particular reference to Southeast Asia. At a time of rising China-Japan tensions, China appears to be making major multifaceted gains throughout Southeast Asia. This article also examines the possibilities of regional trajectories in which the U.S. role is sharply reduced. First published in the Journal of Contemporary China, August 2005, this updated version was published in Japan Focus on October 6, 2005.

Energy and Environment Data – East Asia and Southeast Asia, US Energy Information Administration, August 1999
– Tracks growth in GDP, oil consumption, and carbon emissions in Southeast Asian countries prior to the 1997 financial crisis.
, US Energy Information Administration, August 1999

Evers, Hans-Dieter, and Solvay Gerke. The Strategic Importance of the Straits of Malacca for World Trade and Regional Development. ZEF Working Paper Series.
“The Straits’ cultural and bio-diversity bear great opportunities for the economic and social development of the littoral states of Indonesia, Singapore, Malaysia, and Thailand. Peace and stability in the region are a precondition for regional development, uninterrupted energy supplies and international trade between the European Union and East Asia.”


Fravel, Taylor, Clarification of China’s Claim? The Diplomat, March 5, 2012.
Analyzes recent statement by Chinese Foreign Affairs spokesperson Hong Lei that distinguished between disputes over “territorial sovereignty of the islands and reefs of the Spratly Islands” and disputes over maritime demarcation, and parses the assertion that “no country including China has claimed sovereignty over the entire South China Sea.”

Fravel,Taylor,  All Quiet in the South China Sea: Why China is Playing Nice (For Now), Foreign Affairs, March 22, 2012.
– With little fanfare, Beijing has recently taken an unusually moderate approach in the seas surrounding its territory. With the friendlier policy, the country hopes to restore its tarnished image in East Asia and reduce the temptation for Washington to take a more active role there.

Fullbrook, David, China to Europe via a new Burma road, Asia Times Online Ltd., 2004.
– Discusses the possible future oil trading routes between China and Europe, which do not pass through the Strait of Malacca.


Green, Alison and Peter J. Mous. Delineating the Coral Triangle, its ecoregions and functional seascapes. Nature Conservancy. 2008
– The Coral Triangle
comprises the highest reef biodiversity on Earth. It is the epicenter of marine diversity and a global priority for conservation. In this ongoing research project, the Coral Triangle, its ecoregions and functional seascapes are delineated for conservation purposes based on best available biological and physical information. The project began with an experts workshop organized by The Nature Conservancy’s South East Asia Center for Marine Protected Areas, Bali, Indonesia (April 30 – May 2, 2003). The online report was last updated in September 2008.

Gupta, Vipin and Bernstein, Adam. Keeping an Eye on the Islands: Remote Monitoring in the South China Sea. Sandia National Laboratory. May 1999.
– “This paper explores the technical feasibility and utility of aerial and commercial satellite imaging for cooperative monitoring of islands, islets, and reefs in the South China Sea – a region that has been a source of conflict amongst the coastal states.”


Hayashi, Moritaka. Military and intelligence gathering activities in the EEZ: definition of key terms. Marine Policy Volume 29, Issue 2, March 2005, Pages 123-137.
– “This chapter reviews the origin and use and interpretation of such terms as “peaceful uses,” “peaceful purpose,” “freedom of navigation and overflight,” “residual rights,” “other internationally lawful uses of the sea,” “installations and structures,” “due regard,” “normal mode,” hostile intent, and abuse of rights with a view to clarifying their agreed meaning and identifying any areas of disagreement.” Part of a special issue on “Military and Intelligence Gathering Activities in the Exclusive Economic Zone: Consensus and Disagreement II,” edited by M.J. Valencia and K. Akimoto.

Historical Evidence To Support China’s Sovereignty over Nansha Islands. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China, 2000.
– that “China was the first to discover, name, develop,conduct economic activities on and exercise jurisdiction over the Nansha Islands.”

Ho, Joshua. The Security of Sea Lanes in Southeast Asia, Asian Survey Vol. 46, No. 4 (July/August 2006) (pp. 558-574).
– Predicts a shift in economic power from the US to Asia that will increase the need for safe shipping lanes. The number and severity of piracy attacks has increased, as economic power shifts to Asia this trend will likely continue unless the Southeast Asian countries take action against piracy.


ICC International Maritime Bureau, Piracy Reporting Center, Live Piracy and Armed Robbery Report
– Detailed current reports of incidents of piracy and armed robbery attacks against ships, with date, time, location, satellite and map view, type of attack, vessel attacked, and response.

Information Resources on Piracy and Armed Robbery at Sea against Ships, Maritime Knowledge Centre, International Maritime Organization (Last update: 23 January 2012).

International Recognition of China’s Sovereignty over the Nansha Islands, PRC Ministry of Foreign Affairs, November 17, 2000.
– Lists the various governments, conferences, and publications since 1912 that have recognized Chinese sovereignty over the Spratly Islands. Keywords: encyclopedia, territory.


Ji Guoxing, Maritime Jurisdiction in the Three China Seas: Options For Equitable Settlement, Institute on Global Conflict and Cooperation, 1995.
– The three China Seas (the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea) are all enclosed or semi-enclosed and studded with so many offshore and mid-ocean islands that nowhere does the distance from one headland or island to another approach 400 nautical miles. China has maritime jurisdictional disputes with other coastal states (North Korea, South Korea, Japan, and other Southeast Asian countries) which border on the China Seas. The controversies involve two dimensions: territorial sovereignty over islands, and relevant jurisdictional rights and interests in maritime demarcation. This paper discusses three options for the settlement of the disputes. The first involves each claimant making due adjustments to its claim and negotiating for an equitable solution on the boundary elimination in a spirit of compromise and accommodation. The second option asks the countries to work for joint development in the disputed areas. The final option is to accept third-party assistance for the settlement of the disputes when the issues are deadlocked and when there is no hope of a compromise between the claimant states themselves.

Ji Guoxing, Rough Waters in the South China Sea: Navigation Issues and Confidence-Building Measures. AsiaPacific, August 2001.
– In the wake of a collision between a U.S. spy plane and a Chinese jet fighter off the coast of Hainan in April 2001, verbal skirmishing between the United States and China revealed sharply different conceptions of jurisdictional and navigational principles. These differences persist and will likely be the cause of future conflicts; they have already caused strife among countries ringing the South China Sea. Central to these conflicts are the exclusive economic zones (EEZ) that extend 200 nm into the sea from coastal nations’ baselines. Created by the UN Law of the Sea Convention, these zones attempt to accommodate coastal states’ interest in controlling offshore resources and maritime powers’ interests in maintaining freedom of navigation. But ambiguities in the Convention’s language combined with coastal states’ proliferating EEZ claims have created a tinderbox. The situation will remain volatile as long as the focus remains on jurisdictional disputes. But confidence-building efforts aimed more narrowly-on practical navigation issues and managing “incidents at sea”-offer a starting point for first bilateral and then multilateral agreements.

Ji Guoxing, SLOC Security in the Asia Pacific, Asia-Pacific Center For Security Studies, 2000.
-“The economic development of Asian Pacific countries in the passing two to three decades has been closely related to seaborne trade, and the importance of sea lines of communication (SLOC) to regional countries would be much increased in the twenty-first century.  SLOC security is now one of the priorities in regional countries’ strategic thinking and policy making.”

Jin-Hyun Paik and Anthony Bergin. Maritime Security in the Asia-Pacific. Asia’s Emerging Regional Order: Reconciling Traditional and Human Security. United Nations University Press; 2000, 177 – 191.
– Examines five types of security issues – disputes about the sovereignty of offshore islands, issues of maritime boundaries, the protection of seaborne trade, resource conflicts, and the maintenance of law and order at sea – and evaluates the role of the UNCLOS in resolving or exacerbating those issues and suggests new ways in which the Convention can be applied and improved.

Jinming, Li and Li Dexia. The Dotted Line on the Chinese Map of the South China Sea: A Note. Ocean Development & International Law; 2003, 34:287–295.
– Provides details of the history of the dotted line marking Chinese claims in the South China Sea since 1947 and presents the current opinions of scholars and others on the issue.

Joyner, Christopher C., The Spratly Islands Dispute in the South China Sea: Problems, Policies, and Prospects for Diplomatic Accommodation.
– “Territorial conflicts in the Spratlys are complicated and intertwined with multiple considerations having both domestic and foreign policy implications. Nationalistic claims are not given up easily. Sovereignty is perceived by each claimant as exclusive and sacred. For lasting solutions to be found, these governments must be willing to temper nationalism and distrust, and accept trade-offs and compromises that lead to mutual benefits and cooperation.” The article “assesses geopolitical and legal nuances of disputes in the South China Sea, with a view to proposing confidence-building measures (CBMs) that might contribute to the resolution or setting aside of competing claims in the region.”
Book chapter from Ranjeet K. Singh, ed., Investigating Confidence-Building Measures in the Asia-Pacific Region, Stimson Center, 1999.